7. Explain the difference between theoretical (stoichiometric) yield and actual (empirical) yield. What are some factors contributing to this difference?
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The theoretical yield is not an estimate, but the calculated amount of the yield based on the best of conditions for the reaction being carried to completion.
The actual yield is the measured amount from the actual experiment. This is often less than the ideal theoretical yield because of other factors that affect the reaction, mainly that the reagent used in the reaction is consumed so that you have less material to progress the reaction to its full theoretical yield.
More refined answer: Theoretical yield- amount you're supposed to get.
Actual yield- amount you do get.
For example there could be a theoretical yield of 35g carbon, but the actual yield is 45g.