The wing color of a certain species of moth is controlled by alleles at a single locus. Gray (G) is dominant to white (g). A scientist studied a large population of these moths, tracking the frequency of the G allele over time, as shown in the figure below:
Assuming that the population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for this gene, what percentage of the moth population was heterozygous in 1960?
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What should I use as the two frequencies. I have an idea but I am not sure.
@BadgerBoy In your question you have two alleles ("G" and "g"). Here, the term "frequency" could be replaced by the phrase "proportion of 'G' allele of gene X in a population with two alleles ('G' and 'g') for gene X, expressed in non-percentage terms."
Frequency can go from 0 to 1, the frequency of the two alleles should add to 1 or something has gone wrong. Once you know the frequency of an allele you can find proportion of each genotype (replace 'p' and 'q' with freqG and freqg):\[(freq G)^2+2(freqG)(freqg)+(freqg)^2=1\]so, proportions of each genotype in a population can be calculated by solving for the appropriate term.
Because this is the first kind of problem that I have seen like this, could you show me how to get the answer so I can use it as an example for my notebook?
@BadgerBoy Okay. The graph gives you the frequency of the G allele over time. If we know the frequency of the G allele (freq.G) you can find the frequency of the g allele (freq.g). \[1-freq.G=freq.g\]. I'm sure you can find the frequency of G at 1960 yourself. Once you do, find the frequency of g in the population by the above formula. Now look back at my previous post with the HW equation. We map the genotypes to the terms in that equation. Recall p is for G and q is for g, so \[p^2\ =\ GG\]\[q^2\ =\ gg\] and\[2pq\ =\ Gg\]All you need to do is pick the heterozygote, fill in the appropriate frequencies and do the simple math. Remember "hetero" means different, as in not having same .