What makes a molecule polar, is it simply because of the difference of electro negativities between the atoms or is there more to it?
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A molecule is polar when an electric dipole moment is present, this means a separation of charge - which could be partial charges, like in water, or "full" charges like in an ionic bond.
How small does the separation of charge have to be in order to classify the molecule as non-polar?
In terms of electronegativities between atoms, 0.4.
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Alright. What if I had something like this |dw:1442183618149:dw| I think this is a alcohol that that is polar. Did I express the partial charges correctly?
And last question, how large would the electro-negativity difference have to be in order for a molecule to be polar?
the difference has to be greater than 0.4.
And yes, that molecule is polar, the dipole moment is pointed like this|dw:1442184163543:dw|
but it's hard to see without the proper stereochemistry and the lone pairs, this is a better depiction (the arrow is coming out of the page)