1. Name and describe the layers of the Earth. How do these layers affect earthquake waves? How do earthquake waves help us to know what earth’s interior is like?
2. Explain what convection currents are. Where in earth’s interior do these occur (be specific)? What effect do convection currents in the mantle have on Earth’s surface?
3. Describe Wegener’s theory of continental drift in detail (i.e. – what are plates, what was the supercontinent called, what evidence supported his theory, etc).
4. Describe each plate boundary – transform, convergent, divergent. How do the plates move at each of these, what happens, and what features form (i.e. – trench, volcanic island chain, volcano on continent, mountain range, earthquake, rift valley, subduction, mid ocean ridge).
5. Explain how the Hawaiian islands formed and the evidence that helps us understand how they formed
6. Describe a composite cone volcano in detail. How do these form? What are the different parts of one?
7. Describe the gases that are emitting from a volcanic eruption. What affect do they have on the atmosphere and planet?
8. Describe P and S waves. How are they similar? How are they different?
9. How do we locate the epicenter of an earthquake
10. There is gold found in South America (where the Inca’s lived) where there are volcanic mountains along the coast. Explain, how does plate tectonics explain this (which types of plates are involved here and what type of boundary is there?).
11. Explain sea floor spreading – where does this happen and what happens? What evidence do scientists have that this happens?
12. How did each of these form – Japan, Mariana trench, Alps, Andes
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There are four types of layers that the Earth has. The crust is broken into plates and is composed of granite and basalt rock. The mantle is the largest layer of the Earth and is hot, dense rock. The outer core contains hot metals and is 1800 miles below the crust and 1400 miles thick. The inner core has metals that are squeezed together because of the great temperatures and pressures. It is about 800 miles thick and 4000 miles below the crust