Interfaces are confusing me. I have asked classmates and no one knows, can you answer this?
Suppose C is a class that implements the interfaces I and J. Which of the following
assignments require a cast?
C c = . . .;
I i = . . .;
J j = . . .;
a. c = i;
b. j = c;
c. i = j;
Thank you so much!
Stacey Warren - Expert brainly.com
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In general, a cast can be done implicitly only when it is 'safe', otherwise it has to be specified explicitly.
A good way to understand it is by an example. In this case let's use direct inheritance, but it's the same idea when implementing interfaces.
Say you have two classes `Zebra` and `Elephant` that inherit from `Mammal`. Obviously you can do:
Zebra z = new Zebra();
Elephant e = new Elephant();
But the thing is, because `Zebra` inherits from `Mammal` (since logically every zebra is necessarily a mammal..) then the following logically works `Mammal m_z = new Zebra()`.
Likewise we can do `Mammal m_e = new Elephant()`. But notice that the opposite is not logically true. A mammal is not necessarily a zebra (or an elephant).
The cast from Mammal to Zebra is not safe, because `Zebra z = m_e` results in trying to treat an Elephant object (treated as Mammal) as a Zebra object, but an elephant is not a zebra.. oops.
However that doesn't mean that the cast is always bad. The assignment `Zebra z = m_z` tries to treat an actual Zebra object (treated as Mammal) as a Zebra object. The thing is, as seen above, that the cast is not "safe", but not necessarily wrong. So if we want to perform such a cast we have to do so explicitly `Zebra z = (Zebra)m_z`.
If you'd try this with an elephant: `Zebra z = (Zebra)m_e` the program would compile, but it performs bad cast which usually results in a runtime error trying to do so (depends on the language).