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Define ionization energy and explain why the second ionization energy of any element is higher than its first ionization energy.
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Ionisation energy is the amount of energy required to remove one electron from one mole of gaseous atoms to produce 1 mole of gaseous ions with a charge of 1+.
The second ionisation energy is always higher than the first regardless of the element because once one electron has been taken away (from the first ionisation energy), the element becomes more positive by a charge of +1 (making it a cation) meaning the electrons in that particular element are being pulled closer to the nucleus, because it is more positive. Electrons (negative charge), will be harder to take away from a cation (positive charge), than a neutral atom (balanced protons and electrons).