Insulin is a protein hormone. How would insulin bind to its target cells?
Through a receptor on the cell membrane that transduces its signal to the cell's DNA
Through a receptor on the cell's nucleus that transduces its signal to the cell's DNA
By binding to a receptor in the cytoplasm that binds to the cell's DNA
By binding to the cell's DNA directly, after passing through the cell membrane
I think this is A based on a ton of research I just did, but still not totally sure.
Stacey Warren - Expert brainly.com
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Hormones are generally facilitators, although some are inhibitors It depends on the hormone and the function of its target cell. Let's look at one example of a specific hormone and how it works on its target cells.
Insulin is a protein hormone made in the pancreas. Its job is to facilitate the diffusion of glucose from the blood plasma into the cells, through the cell membranes, especially those of muscle cells.
Insulin binds with receptors on the target cells, and when it does, the cell membrane becomes permeable to glucose which then diffuses into the cell from the blood plasma. If the insulin is insufficient or the insulin receptors on the cell membranes of the target cells are damaged, glucose cannot pass through the membranes into the cells and remains in the blood plasma, a condition called diabetes; there are two basic types of diabetes, but the bottom line is that if insulin is not present or is unable to bind with its receptors on its target cells, it cannot perform its function as a facilitator for glucose.
Other hormones have different functions. Thyroid hormones control metabolic rate in the mitochondria of their target cells, sex hormones control meiosis to form sperm or egg and also the development of sexual characteristics, etc. There are many hormones with many different functions, but they are generally needed to facilitate or inhibit, as in the case of norepenepherine on the AV node of the heart, for example..it slows heartbeat and lowers stroke volume of the heart, some chemical or molecular process in or on their target cells.
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More than that though, insulin is a protein, meaning it is also a water-soluble hormone.
Water-soluble hormones cannot cross through the cell membrane on their own, so they bind to receptors on the outside of the cell. These receptors then have what I call "guys on the inside" who send the signals through to the cell's DNA.
that is your answer.
I know it has to be an answer where it binds to the receptor on the surface of the cell. so the only answer is A
what's the "i think" about? what else are you thinking?
I am pretty sure it is a.
Cite your sources when you copy and paste other peoples work.