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The answer is I'll explain how to make a punnett square and you can draw along as I explain. I use eye color because it's common and easy to understand. Once you understand how the square works, you can apply it to any genetic characteristic. Hope this helps. Brown eyes (B) are dominant. Blue or green eyes (b) are recessive to brown, (although green are dominant to blue). What recessive means is that if there is ever a combination of a dominant gene with the recessive gene, the dominant is always exhibited. The easiest way to understand eye color and heredity is to draw a punnett square. I'll try to explain and you draw it on paper as I do so. Draw a square. Inside draw a cross so there are 4 sections. Now we add the genes. If either parent is homozygous (homo = same) for brown eyes (B), every offspring will have brown eyes. However if both parents are heterozygous for eye color, that is, each has a dominant and a recessive gene (Bb) they will have brown eyes but carry the recessive gene. Now go to your square. Put dad on top. Above the top left square put a B and above the top right square put a b (This represents dad's Bb genetic make up for eye color). Now go to the left side. Next to the upper left box put a B and next to the lower left box put a b. (This is mom's Bb make up.) Now combine them. The upper left box would have a BB. The upper right box would have a B (from mom) and a b (from dad). The lower left box would have a b (from mom) and a B (from dad). The lower right box would have a bb (from each mom and dad). If you look at the results you will have 1 offspring that is homozygous for brown eyes (BB) and has brown eyes. You will have 2 offspring that are heterozygous for brown eyes (Bb) and have brown eyes, and 1 offspring that is homozygous for recessive blue or green eyes (bb). The example above is one of complete dominance = whenever there is a B, brown will be exhibited. There is also incomplete dominance where neither gene is dominant. An example is flower color. If R represents red and Rp = pink and pp = white this is what happens. Make your box. Cross a red flower (R & R above the top 2 boxes) with a white flower (rr next to the two left boxes). When you cross them, all four boxes have Rr which means you have 4 pink flowers. Now let’s cross 2 pink flowers. Draw your box. Above the top left and right put R and r (genes for pink). Next to the left top and bottom put R and r. Now cross them like you did with eyes. You will end up with one RR red flower, 2 Rr pink flowers and one rr white flower.
Did that help?
sort of. It helped to explain it but I just want to be certain. I think I got it tho. More questions to be posted if I cant figure it out